The Irish in Jamaica also formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla , which was established in and abandoned around because it was deemed unhealthy. While planning the abolition of slavery, the British Parliament passed laws to improve conditions for slaves. The Jamaican Maroons fought the British during the 18th century. The name is still used today by modern Maroon descendants, who have certain rights and autonomy at the community of Accompong. An early group of Jews arrived in , soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. The first and third largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa , closed, and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan.
In , Kingston was designated as the island's capital. During its first years of British rule, Jamaica became one of the world's leading sugar -exporting, slave-dependent colonies, producing more than 77, tons of sugar annually between and Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land. Other gardens were the Cinchona Plantation , founded in , and the Hope Botanical Gardens founded in These included the Castleton Botanical Gardens , developed in to replace the Bath Botanical Gardens created in which was subject to flooding. Primarily working as merchants and traders, the Jewish community was forced to live a clandestine life, calling themselves "Portugals". Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla , which was established in and abandoned around because it was deemed unhealthy. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. The name is still used today by modern Maroon descendants, who have certain rights and autonomy at the community of Accompong. After Kenya achieved independence, its government appointed him as Chief Justice and he moved there. One and a half kilometres west of St. Following a series of rebellions on the island and changing attitudes in Great Britain, the British government formally abolished slavery by an act, beginning in , with full emancipation from chattel slavery declared in Due to rising foreign and local debt, accompanied by large fiscal deficits, the government sought International Monetary Fund IMF financing from the United States and others. Independence, however widely celebrated in Jamaica, has been questioned in the early 21st century. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in Economic deterioration continued into the mids, exacerbated by a number of factors. The population in was ,, of whom 15, were white, 5, free black; 40, 'coloured' or free people of color mixed race ; and , were slaves. They banned the use of whips in the field and flogging of women; informed planters that slaves were to be allowed religious instruction, and required a free day during each week when slaves could sell their produce,  prohibiting Sunday markets to enable slaves to attend church. The optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of inequality among many Afro-Jamaicans, and a concern that the benefits of growth were not being shared by the urban poor. With the pirates installed in Port Royal , which became the largest city in the Caribbean, the Spanish would be deterred from attacking. While planning the abolition of slavery, the British Parliament passed laws to improve conditions for slaves. After the abolition of the international slave trade in ,  the British began to "import" indentured servants to supplement the labour pool, as many freedmen resisted working on the plantations. Reynolds Jamaica Mines, Ltd. The first and third largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa , closed, and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan. Jago de la Vega, around at present-day St.
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